प्राचीन काळापासून अस्तित्वात असणारी नगरे

प्राचीन काळापासून मानवी लोकवस्ती असणाऱ्या नगरांची यादी खाली दिली आहे. This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.The age claims listed may be disputed, or indeed obsolete. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of "city" as well as "continuously inhabited".

प्रत्येकास "जगातील सर्वात प्राचीन नगर" म्हणून ख्याती असणाऱ्या (दमास्कस, बायब्लॉस, जेरिको, वाराणशी)ह्या शहरांचा देखील ह्या यादीत समावेश करण्यात आला आहे. Caveats to the validity of each claim are discussed in the "Notes" column.

Translation arrow-indic.svg
ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.

प्राचीन जगसंपादन करा

Continuous habitation since the Chalcolithic (or Copper Age) is possible (but difficult) to prove archaeologically for several Levantine cities (Jericho, Byblos, Damascus, Sidon and Beirut). Cities became more common outside the Fertile Crescent with the Early Iron Age from about 1100 BC. The foundation of Rome in 753 BC is conventionally taken as one of the dates initiating Classical Antiquity.साचा:Fact

नगराचे नाव ऐतिहासिक विभाग/प्रांत ठिकाण सातत्याने मानववस्ती असल्याच्या नोंदी नोंदी
दमिश्क लेव्हांत सीरिया चालकॉलिथिक Excavations at Tel Ramad on the outskirts of the city have demonstrated that Damascus was inhabited as early as 8000 to 10,000 BC.[१]साचा:Dubious However, Damascus is not documented as an important city until the coming of the Aramaeans around 1400 BC. See reference for presence of urban life among cattle herders at this date — also due to land fertility and constant water source.[ संदर्भ हवा ]
जेरिको लेव्हांत वेस्ट बॅंक चाल्कोलिथिक काळ (इ.स.पू. ३००० पूर्वी) Traces of habitation from 9000 BC.[२][३]

Fortifications date to 6800 BC (or earlier), making Jericho the earliest known walled city.[४] Evidence indicates that the city was abandoned several times, and later expanded and rebuilt several times.[५]

बॅब्लिओस लेव्हांत लेबॅनॉन चाल्कोलिथिक काळ (इ.स.पू. ५००० पूर्वी)[६] Settled from the Neolithic (carbon-dating tests have set the age of earliest settlement around 7000[७]), a city since the 3rd millennium BC.[६] Byblos had a reputation as the "oldest city in the world" in Antiquity (according to Philo of Byblos).
सिडॉन लेव्हांत लेबॅनॉन इ.स.पू. ४००० [८] There is evidence that Sidon was inhabited from as long ago as 4000 BC, and perhaps, as early as Neolithic times (6000 - 4000 BC).
अल फय्युम (as Crocodilopolis or Arsinoe, ancient Egyptian: Shediet) इजिप्त फैयुम प्रांत, इजिप्त इ.स.पू. (४००० अंदाजे)[९]
गाझियांटेप अनातोलिया नैऋत्य अनातोलिया प्रांत, तुर्कस्तान इ.स.पू. ३६५०[ संदर्भ हवा ] This is disputed, although most modern scholars place the Classical Antiochia ad Taurum at Gaziantep, some maintain that it was located at Aleppo. Furthermore, that the two cities occupy the same site is far from established fact (see Gaziantep). Assuming this to be the case, the founding date of the present site would be about 1,000 BC. (see Gaziantep)
राय इराण इ.स.पू. ३०००[१०] A settlement at the site goes back to the 3rd millennium BC. Rayy is mentioned in the Avesta (an important text of prayers in Zoroastrianism, as a sacred place, and it is also featured in the book of Tobit.[१०]
बैरुत लेव्हांत लेबेनॉन इ.स.पू. ३०००[११]
टायर लेव्हांत लेबेनॉन इ.स.पू. २७५०[१२]
आर्बिल मेसोपोटेमिया कुर्दिस्तान प्रांत, इराक इ.स.पू. २३०० किंवा त्याआआधी[१३]
अराफा (किर्कुक) मेसोपोटेमिया किर्कुक प्रांत, इराक इ.स.पू. ३०००-२२००[१४]
जाफ्फा लेव्हांत इस्रायेल इ.स.पू. २००० (अं) Archaeological evidence shows habitation from 7500 BC.[१५]
अलेप्पो लेव्हांत सिरिया इ.स.पू. २००० (अं)[१६] Evidence of occupation since about 5000 BC.[१७]
बल्ख (बॅक्ट्रा) बॅक्ट्रिया बल्ख प्रांत, अफगाणिस्तान इ.स.पू. १५०० (अं) Balkh is one of the oldest settlements of the region.[१८]
हेब्रॉन लेव्हांत वेस्ट बॅंक इ.स.पू. १५०० (अं) Hebron is considered one of the oldest cities and has been continuously

inhabited for nearly 3500 years.[१९]

चानिया क्रीट क्रीट, ग्रीस इ.स.पू. १४०० (अं) Minoan foundation as Kydonia
लारनाका अलाशिया सायप्रस इ.स.पू. १४०० (अं) Mycenaean, then Phoenician colony
Thebes Mycenaean Greece Boeotia, Greece ca. 1400 BC Mycenaean foundation
अथेन्स मिसेनेइयन ग्रीस ॲटिका, ग्रीस इ.स.पू. १४०० Mycenaean foundation, with traces of earlier habitation on the Acropolis.
आर्गोस मिसेनेइयन ग्रीस ग्रीस इ.स.पू. १२०० आधी
Trikala Mycenaean Greece Thessaly, Greece before 1200 BC founded as Trikke
Chalcis Mycenaean Greece Greece before 1200 BC mentioned by Homer
Lisbon Iron Age Iberia Portugal ca. 1200 BC A settlement since the Neolithic. Allis Ubbo, arguably a Phoenician name, became Olissipo(-nis) in Greek and Latin (also Felicitas Julia after Roman conquest in 205 BC).
Cádiz Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, स्पेन 1100 BC founded as Phoenician Gadir, "Europe's oldest city"[२०]
Patras Mycenaean Greece Greece ca. 1100 BC founded by Patreus
वाराणसी भारत उत्तर प्रदेश, भारत ca. 1200-1000 BC[२१] लोह युग foundation (Painted Grey Ware culture).
Xi'an Bronze Age China Shaanxi, PRC ca. 1100 BC
Chios Chios North Aegean, Greece ca. 1100 BC
Gaza City Levant Gaza Strip ca. 1000 BC While evidence of habitation dates back at least 5,000 years, it is said to be continuously inhabited for a little more than 3,000 years.[२२][२३]
Mytilene Lesbos North Aegean, Greece 10th century BC
Anuradhapura Rajarata North Central Province, श्रीलंका 10th century BC[ संदर्भ हवा ]
Pula Istria Croatia 10th century BCसाचा:Dubious The city's earliest recordedसाचा:By whom permanent habitation dates back to the 10th century BC (Ivelja-Dalmatin 200).साचा:Verify credibility[२४]
Zadar Liburnia Croatia 9th century BCसाचा:Dubious based on archaeological evidence, according to Suić (1981)साचा:Dubious.[२५]
Nin Liburnia Croatia 9th century BC]]साचा:Dubious based on archaeological evidence, according to www.nin.hr.साचा:Verify credibility[१]
नेपल्स Magna Graecia इटली 8th century BC[२६] founded as Parthenope.
Hamadan (As Ecbatana) Median Empire Iran ca. 800 BC [२७]
Yerevan (as Erebuni) Urartu Armenia ca. 800 BC[२८]
उज्जैन (As अवंती) माळवा भारत ८०० इ.स..पू.[२९] ७०० इ.स.पू. मध्ये अवंतीची राजधानी म्हणून उदयास आले. भारत देशाची दुसर्‍या शहरीकरीकरणाच्या लहरीत ६०० इ.स.पू प्रगती झाली.
रोम Latium Lazio, इटली ७५३ इ.स.पू. १००० इ.स.पू.पासून नेहमी गजबजलेले.; इ.स.पू. ९ व्या शतकात चरावाहांचे खेडे म्हणून माहितीत.; see also History of Rome and Founding of Rome.
Corfu, Kerkyra Corfu Ionian Islands, Greece 700 BC
समरकंद Sogdiana उझबेकिस्थान ७०० इ.स.पू.
इस्तंबूल/बायझेन्टियम Thrace Anatolia Turkey 685 BC Anatolia 667 BC Thrace Neolithic site dated to 6400 BC, over port of Lygos by Thracians circa 1150 BC
Durrës Illyria Albania 627 BC Founded[३०] by settlers from Corcyra & Corinth as Epidamnos
Stara Zagora Thrace Bulgaria 342 BC It was called Beroe in ancient times and was founded by Phillip II of Macedon[३१][३२][३३][३४], although a Thracian settlement neolithic inhabitation have been discovered as well.
Varna Thrace Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria 585 BC - 570 BC founded[३५] as Odessos by settlers from Miletus
Kavala Macedonia Greece 6th century BC founded as Neapolis
Edessa, Greece Macedonia Greece before the 6th century BC capital of Macedonia up to 6th century BC
Mangalia Dacia Romania 6th century BC founded as Callatis
Constanţa Dacia Romania 6th century BC founded as Tomis
Mantua Po Valley Lombardy, Italy 6th century BC Village settlement since ca. 2000 BC; became an Etruscan city in the 6th century BC.
Herat Aria Herat Province, Afghanistan ca. 550 BC[ संदर्भ हवा ] The city is dominated by the remains of a citadel constructed by Alexander the Great.
दिल्ली कुरु भारत ५०० इ.स.पू.[३६] इ.स.पू.च्या सुरुवातीच्या शतकांपासूनचे शहर, ११ व्या शतकापासून शहरात मानवी वस्तीचे संकेत See also History of Delhi.
मदुरै पांडियन राज्य तमिळनाडू, भारत ५०० इ.स.पू.[ संदर्भ हवा ]
बिजिंग (as Ji, Yanjing) Yan चीन इ.स.पू.५०० [ संदर्भ हवा ]
इफे Osun State, Nigeria ca. 500 BC[ संदर्भ हवा ]
पाटना मगध बिहार, भारत ४९० इ.स.पू.[३७]
वैशाली मगध बिहार, भारत 500 BC[३७]
राजग्रह (राजगिर) मगध बिहार, भारत इ.स.पू. ६००[३८]
Serres Macedonia Greece 5th century BC first mentioned in the 5th century BC as Siris
Lamia (city) Greece Greece before the 5th century BC first mentioned 424 BC
Veria Macedonia Greece ca. 432 BC first mentioned by Thucydides in 432 BC
Rhodes Rhodes, Aegean Sea Dodecanese, Greece ca. 408 BC
बेलग्रेड Illyria Serbia 400 BC Vinča culture prospered around Belgrade in the 6th millennium BC
थेसालोनिकी Macedonia (ancient kingdom) Greece 315 BC founded as a new city in the same place of the older city Therme.
Berat Macedonia (ancient kingdom) Albania 314 BC Founded[३९] by Cassander as Antipatreia
ग्वांग्झू (Canton) Han Dynasty Guangdong, PRC 214 BC[ संदर्भ हवा ]
झुरिच (Lindenhof) Gaul स्वित्झर्लंड ca. 50 BC lakeside settlement traces dating to the Neolithic.
Trier Gallia Belgica जर्मनी 30 BC Oldest city in जर्मनी.
Nijmegen Germania Inferior Netherlands 19 BC Oldest city in the Netherlands.
Chur Raetia Prima Grisons, स्वित्झर्लंड 15 BC habitation since the 4th millennium BC (Pfyn culture).
Solothurn Gaul स्वित्झर्लंड c. 20 AD Evidence of pre-Roman, Celtic settlement; newly founded by the Romans between 14 – 37 AD, called the "oldest city in Gaul besides Trier" in a verse on the city's clock tower.
लंडन Britannia ग्रेटब्रिटन ४३ इ.स.
व्हेर्दुन Lotharingia फ्रांस 4th century seat of the bishop of Verdun from the 4th century, but populated earlier
प्राग Bohemia Czech Republic ca. 6th century The first written record dates back to the 10th century [४०].
Ioannina Byzantine Empire Greece founded by emperor Justinian I
क्राकोव (Wawel Hill) Galicia Poland 7th c.[४१] The first written record dates back to the 10th century.
पालेंबंग Srivijaya Indonesia ca. 600 oldest city in the Malay Archipelago, capital of the Srivijaya empire.
इफे Osun State, Nigeria ca. 8th century[ संदर्भ हवा ]साचा:Dubious earliest traces of habitation date to the 4th century BC.[ संदर्भ हवा ]
Århus Denmark ca. 700 oldest city in Scandinavia.
Djenné Mali ca. 800 oldest known city in sub-Saharan Africa[४२]
Heraklion Crete Greece 824 founded by the Saracens
डब्लिन Ireland Republic of Ireland 841
रेक्याविक Iceland Iceland ca. 871 [२]
Tønsberg Norway Norway ca. 871 oldest city in Norway.
Tondo, Manila Kingdom of Tondo Philippines 900[४३] oldest known settlement in the Philippines as documented by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription; when the Spanish, led by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, arrived, it was still inhabited and led by at least one datu.
Skara स्वीडन 988
Lund Denmark स्वीडन ca. 990 [३]

सध्याचे (वर्तमान)जगसंपादन करा

हेसुद्धा पाहा: List of American cities by year of foundation

नाव देश स्थापना नोंद
तिकुल मेक्सिको इ.स.पू.चे ७ वे शतक उत्तर व दक्षिण अमेरिकेतील सतत वस्ती असलेली सगळ्यात जुनी वसाहत
चोलुला मेक्सिको इ.स.पू.चे २ रे शतक (अंदाजे) Pre-Columbian Cholula grew from a small village to a regional center during the 7th century.
अकोमा पेब्लो आणि ताओस पेब्लो, न्यू मेक्सिको अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने इ.स. १०७५ (अं)
ओरैबी, ॲरिझोना अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने इ.स. ११०० (अं)
मेक्सिको सिटी मेक्सिको इ.स. १३२५ Founded as Tenochtitlan by the Mexica. Named changed to Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico City) or Mexico-Tenochtitlan after the Spanish conquest of the city in 1521. Several other pre-Columbian towns such as Azcapotzalco, Tlatelolco, Xochimilco and Coyoacan have been engulfed by the growing metropolis and are now part of modern Mexico City.
सांतो दॉमिंगो डॉमिनिकन प्रजासत्ताक इ.स. १४९६ नवीन जगातील सगळ्यात जुनी युरोपीय वसाहत
सान हुआन पोर्तो रिको इ.स. १५०८ Oldest continuously inhabited city in a U.S. territory
नोंब्रे दि दियोस, कोलोन पनामा इ.स. १५१० Oldest European settlement on the American mainland
बाराकोआ क्यूबा इ.स. १५११ Oldest European settlement in Cuba
साओ व्हिसेंते, साओ पाउलो ब्राझील इ.स. १५३२ First Portuguese settlement in South America
सेंट जॉन्स, न्यू फाउंडलंड आणि लाब्राडोर कॅनडा इ.स. १५४०च्या सुमारास Oldest city in Canada, and oldest English-speaking city in North America
सेंट ऑगस्टिन, फ्लोरिडा अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने इ.स. १५५६ Oldest continuously inhabited European founded city within the United States
जेम्सटाऊन, व्हर्जिनिया अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने इ.स. १६०७ Second oldest successful European founded city in the United States[४४]
प्लीमथ, मॅसेच्युसेट्स अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने इ.स. १६२० Third oldest continuously inhabited European founded city in the United States[४५]
क्वेबेक सिटी कॅनडा इ.स. १६०८ Second oldest city in Canada
सेंट जॉन कॅनडा इ.स. १६३१ Third oldest city in Canada
त्रुआ-रिव्हिएरेस कॅनडा इ.स. १६३४ Fourth oldest city in Canada
मॉंट्रिआल कॅनडा इ.स. १६४२ Fifth oldest city in Canada
सिडनी ऑस्ट्रेलिया इ.स. १७८८ Oldest city in Australia
होबार्ट ऑस्ट्रेलिया इ.स. १८०३ Second oldest city in Australia

चित्रदालनसंपादन करा

संदर्भदुवेसंपादन करा

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  2. ^ गेट्स, चार्ल्स. Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome. p. 18. Jericho, in the Jordan River Valley in Israel, inhabited from ca. 9000 BC to the present day, offers important evidence for the earliest permanent settlements in the Near East.
  3. ^ Martell, Hazel Mary. The Kingfisher Book of the Ancient World: From the Ice Age to the Fall of Rome. p. १८. People first settled there from around 9000 B.C., and by 8000 B.C., the community was organized enough to build a stone wall to defend the city.
  4. ^ Michal Strutin, Discovering Natural Israel (2001), p. 4.
  5. ^ Ryan, Donald P. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Lost Civilizations. p. 137. The city was walled during much of its history and the evidence indicates that it was abandoned several times, and later expanded and rebuilt several times.
  6. ^ a b Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L. Cities of the Middle East and North Africa. p. 104. 2009-07-22 रोजी पाहिले. Archaelogical excavations at Byblos indicate that the site has been continually inhabited since at least 5000 B.C.
  7. ^ चियास्का, आंतोलिया. The Phoenicians. p. 170.
  8. ^ Sidon
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  14. ^ either The destruction of the Kirkuk Castle by the Iraqi regime. or History Channel for the earlier date
  15. ^ Excavations at Ancient Jaffa (Joppa). Tel Aviv University.
  16. ^ New World Encyclopedia
  17. ^ Syria Where Stones Speak The Door Is Widening To Westerners, Who Are Discovering The Nation'S Wealth Of History And Culture
  18. ^ Nancy Hatch Dupree, An Historical Guide to Afghanistan, 1977, Kabul, Afghanistan LINK[मृत दुवा]साचा:Verify credibility
  19. ^ Museum With No Frontiers. Pilgrimage, sciences and Sufism: Islamic art in the West Bank and Gaza. p. 253. ISBN 9953360642, 9789953360645 Check |isbn= value: invalid character (सहाय्य).
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  21. ^ Britannica: "by the 2nd millennium BC"
  22. ^ Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L. Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. p. 155. ISBN 1576079198, 9781576079195 Check |isbn= value: invalid character (सहाय्य).
  23. ^ "Life at the Crossroads [New Edition]: A History of Gaza". 2009-01-24 रोजी पाहिले.
  24. ^ Ivelja-Dalmatin, Ana (2009). Pula. Tourist Monograph. 2005-2009, page 7
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  26. ^ "Greek Naples". 8 January 2008.
  27. ^ International dictionary of historic places By Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, K. A. Berney, Paul E. Schellinger
  28. ^ साचा:Hy icon Baghdasaryan A., Simonyan A, et al. «Երևան» (Yerevan). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. vol. iii. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1977, pp. 548-564.
  29. ^ http://www.भारतsite.com/madhyapradesh/ujjain/history.html
  30. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen,2005,page 330,"Epidamnos was founded in either 627 or 625 (Hieron. Chron"
  31. ^ Women and slaves in Greco-Roman culture: differential equations by Sandra Rae Joshel, Sheila Murnaghan,1998,page 214,"Philip II founded cities at Beroe, Kabyle, and Philippopolis in 342/1, and Aegean-style urban life began to penetrate Thrace."
  32. ^ Late Roman villas in the Danube-Balkan region by Lynda Mulvin,2002,page 19,"Other roads went through Beroe (founded by Philip II of Macedon) "
  33. ^ Philip of Macedon by Louïza D. Loukopoulou,1980,page 98,"Upriver in the valley between the Rhodope and Haimos Philip founded Beroe (Stara Zagora) and Philippolis (Plovdiv)."
  34. ^ The cities in Thrace and Dacia in late antiquity: (studies and materials)‎ by Velizar Iv Velkov,1977,page 128,"Founded by Philipp 11 on the site of an old Thracian settlement, it has existed without interruption from that time."
  35. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen,2005,page 936,
  36. ^ City Walls: The Urban Enceinte in Global Perspective, by James D. Tracy, University of Minnesota Center for Early Modern History Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 9780521652216
  37. ^ a b http://irows.ucr.edu/cd/courses/compciv/citypops4000.txt
  38. ^ The estimated year Sravasti was surpassed by Rajagriha is not given in Chandler and Fox’s list[ संदर्भ हवा ] (pp. 362-364).
  39. ^ Epirus: the geography, the ancient remains, the history and topography of ... by Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond,"founded Antipatreia in Illyria at c. 314 BC"
  40. ^ Abraham ben Jacob
  41. ^ wawel.krakow.pl
  42. ^ "Heaven on Earth: Islam", November 23, 2004 video documentary, History Channel. Producer/director, Stephen Rooke. Scriptwriter/host: Christy Kenneally
  43. ^ "Expert on past dies; 82". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 2008-10-21. 2008-11-17 रोजी पाहिले.
  44. ^ After a vote by the House of Burgesses in 1699, it was decided that the Virginia capitol would be moved from the original Jamestown site on the James river to a nearby site 8 miles away that would be free of swamp born illnesses. The original site has since been converted to a national historic park.
  45. ^ Santa Fe, New Mexico, which is sometimes cited for this, was abandoned due to Indian raiding from 1680 - 1692, and it's inhabitants did not succeed in living in the area continuously until after 1692.
  • Aldred, Cyril (1998). The Egyptians. Thames and Hudson: London.
  • Overy et al. (1999). The Times History of The World: New Edition. Times Books/Harper-Collins: London.

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