पोप युजीन तिसरा
बेर्नार्दोचा जन्म इटलीतील पिसा शहरात गोडियस नावाच्या माणसाच्या घरी जन्मला, याशिवाय अधिक माहिती उपलब्ध नाही. १६व्या शतकानंतर त्याचे आडनाव पागानेली दि मॉंतेमान्यो असल्याचे सांगितले गेले परंतु यास पुरावे नाहीत तसेच युजीन गरीब घरातून आला असे म्हणल्याने पानानेली घराण्यात त्याचा जन्म झाला असल्याबद्दल शंका आहे. ११०६ साली हा पिसाच्या कॅथेड्रलमध्ये छोटा अधिकारी असल्याची नोंद आहे तर १११५मध्ये याला सबडीकनपदी बढती मिळाल्याचे पुरावे आहेत. ११३-३८ दरम्यान हा पिसाच्या आर्चडायोसिसचा व्हाइलडोमिनस होता. मे ११३४ आणि फेब्रुवारी ११३७ च्या दरम्यान कधीतरी पोप इनोसंट तिसऱ्याने याला पादरी केले. ११३८मध्ये बेर्नार्दो दि क्लेरव्हॉने प्रभावित होउन युजीन क्लेरव्हॉच्या मठातील सिस्टेर्सियन ऑर्डरमध्ये दाखल झाला. A year later he returned to Italy as leader of the Cistercian community in Scandriglia. In Autumn 1140, Pope Innocent II named him abbot of the monastery of S. Anastasio alle Tre Fontane outside Rome. Some chronicles indicate that he was also elevated to the College of Cardinals, but these testimonies probably resulted from a confusion because Bernardo is not attested as cardinal in any document and from the letter of Bernard of Clairvaux addressed to the cardinals shortly after his election clearly appears that he was not a cardinal.
पोपपदी निवडसंपादन करा
Bernardo was elected pope in February 1145 and took the name Eugene III. He owed his elevation partly to the fact that noone was eager to accept an office the duties of which were at the time so difficult and dangerous, but chiefly to his being the friend and pupil of Bernard of Clairvaux, the most influential ecclesiastic of the Western Church and a strong assertor of the pope's temporal authority. The choice did not have the approval of Bernard, however, who remonstrated against the election on account of the "innocence and simplicity" of Eugene III. But after the choice was made, he took advantage of the qualities in Eugene III which he objected to, so as to virtually rule in his name.
During nearly the whole of his pontificate, Eugene III was unable to reside in Rome. Hardly had he left the city to be consecrated in the monastery of Farfa (about 40 km north of Rome), when the citizens, under the influence of Arnold of Brescia, the great opponent of the Pope's temporal power, established the old Roman constitution, the Commune of Rome and elected Giordano Pierleoni to be Patrician. Eugene III appealed for help to Tivoli, Italy, to other cities at feud with Rome, and to King Roger II of Sicily (who sent his general Robert of Selby), and with their aid was successful in making such conditions with the Roman citizens as enabled him for a time to hold the semblance of authority in his capital. But as he would not agree to a treacherous compact against Tivoli, he was compelled to leave the city in March 1146. He stayed for some time at Viterbo, and then at Siena, but went ultimately to France.
On hearing of the fall of Edessa to the Turks, he had, in December 1145, addressed the bull Quantum praedecessores to Louis VII of France, calling on him to take part in another crusade. At a great diet held at Speyer in 1146, Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III and many of his nobles were also incited to dedicate themselves to the crusade by the eloquence of Bernard.
Eugene held synods in northern युरोप at Paris, Rheims, and Trier in 1147 and 1149 that were devoted to the reform of clerical life. He also considered and approved the works of Hildegard of Bingen. In 1149, Eugene III returned to Italy and took up his residence at Viterbo. He fled to Prince Ptolemy's fortress in Tusculum on 8 April and remained there, where he met the returning Crusader king Louis VII of France and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine. He stayed there until 7 November. In 1150, through the aid of the King of Sicily, he was again able to enter Rome, but the jealousy of the republicans soon compelled him to retire.
The Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa had promised to aid him against his revolted subjects, but the death of Eugene III at Tivoli, on 8 July 1153, prevented the fulfillment of the engagement. Though the citizens of Rome were jealous of the efforts of Eugene III to assert his temporal authority, they were always ready to recognize him as their spiritual lord. Besides that, they deeply reverenced his personal character. Accordingly he was buried in the Vatican with every mark of respect, and his tomb soon acquired an extraordinary fame for miraculous cures.
संदर्भ आणि नोंदीसंपादन करा
- Horn, p. 31.
- J. M. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130–1181, Berlin 1912, p. 86; Eugenio III Archived 2015-09-23 at the Wayback Machine.. Horn, p. 33–34, has rejected the attribution of this familiar denomination to Eugene III as completely unfounded.
- Horn, p. 34–35.
- Horn, p. 34.
- Horn, p. 35–36.
- Horn, p. 36–40.
- On that ground Brixius, p. 41 no. 7, lists him among the cardinals created by Innocent II.
- Horn, p. 42–45.