"द्राविड लोक" च्या विविध आवृत्यांमधील फरक

४५ बाइट्सची भर घातली ,  ६ वर्षांपूर्वी
छो (→‎हे सुद्धा पहा: clean up, replaced: हेही पहा → हे सुद्धा पहा)
छो (re-categorisation)
'''Dravidian people''' also '''Dravidians''' refers to the people who natively speak languages belonging to the [[Dravidian languages|Dravidian language family]]. Populations of speakers are found mostly in [[South India|southern India]]. Other Dravidian people are found in parts of central [[India]], [[Sri Lanka Tamils (native)|Sri Lanka]], [[Bangladesh]], [[Pakistan]], [[Afghanistan]] and [[Iran]]. Dravidian people with the most speakers (30-70 million each) are [[Telugus]], [[Tamils]], [[Kannadigas]], [[Malayalis]]. Others with 1-5 million speakers each are [[Tuluvas]], [[Gonds]] and [[Brahui]].
== Etymology ==
Zvelebil in his earlier treatise (Zvelebil 1975: p53) states: "It is obvious that the Sanskrit ''dr(a/ā){{IAST|viḍa}}'', Pali ''damila'', ''{{IAST|damiḷo}}'' and Prakrit ''d(a/ā){{IAST|viḍa}}'' are all etymologically connected with ''{{IAST|tamiẓ}}''" and further remarks "The ''r'' in ''{{IAST|tamiẓ}}'' > ''dr(a/ā){{IAST|viḍa}}'' is a hypercorrect insertion, cf. an analogical case of DED 1033 Ta. ''kamuku'', Tu.''kangu'' "areca nut": Skt. ''kramu(ka)''.".
Further, another eminent Dravidian linguist [[Bhadriraju Krishnamurti]] in his book ''Dravidian Languages'' (Krishnamurti 2003:p2, footnote 2) states:
"Joseph (1989: IJDL 18.2:134-42) gives extensive references for the use of the term ''{{IAST|draviḍa}}'', ''dramila'' first as the name of a people, then of a country. Sinhala inscriptions BCE [Before Christian Era] cite ''{{IAST|dameḍa}}''-, ''damela''- denoting Tamil merchants. Early Buddhist and Jaina sources used ''{{IAST|damiḷa}}''- to refer to a people of in south India (presumably Tamil); ''{{IAST|damilaraṭṭha}}''- was a southern non-Aryan country; ''{{IAST|dramiḷa}}''-, ''{{IAST|dramiḍa}}'', and ''{{IAST|draviḍa}}''- were used as variants to designate a country in the south (''{{IAST|Bṛhatsamhita-}}'', ''Kādambarī'', ''Daśakumāracarita-'', fourth to seventh centuries CE) (1989: 134-8). It appears that ''{{IAST|damiḷa}}''- was older than ''{{IAST|draviḍa}}''- which could be its Sanskritization."
Based on what Krishnamurti states referring to a scholarly paper published in the International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics the Sanskrit word ''{{IAST|draviḍa}}'' itself is later than ''{{IAST|damiḷa}}'' since the dates for the forms with -r- are centuries later than the dates for the forms without -r- (''{{IAST|damiḷa}}'', ''{{IAST|dameḍa}}''-, ''damela''- etc.). So it is clear that it is difficult to maintain Dravida -> Dramila -> Tamizha or Tamil.
{{Main|Proto-Dravidian|Dravidian homeland|Substratum in Vedic Sanskrit|Elamo-Dravidian languages}}
[[Kamil V. Zvelebil]] has suggested that [[proto-Dravidian]] was part of a larger [[Elamo-Dravidian]] language family<ref>Kamil V. 1974. "Dravidian and Elamite - A Real Break-Through?", Journal of the American Oriental Society 94.3 (July-Sept.): 384-5.</ref>. However, [[George Starostin]] has disputed the existence of an [[Elamo-Dravidian]] language family <ref>[http://starling.rinet.ru/Texts/elam.pdf "On The Genetic Affiliation Of The Elamite Language"], in: ''[[Mother Tongue (journal)|Mother Tongue]]'', Vol. 7, 2002.</ref>.
According to a view put forward by [[geneticist]] [[Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza]] in the book ''The History and Geography of Human Genes'', the Dravidians were preceded in the subcontinent by an [[Austro-Asiatic]] people, and followed by [[Indo-European languages|Indo-European]]-speaking [[human migration|migrants]] sometime later. The original inhabitants may be identified with the speakers of the [[Munda languages]], which are unrelated to either Indo-Aryan or Dravidian languages. However, the Munda languages, as a subgroup of the larger [[Austro-Asiatic languages|Austro-Asiatic language family]], are presumed to have arrived in the Indian subcontinent from the east, possibly from the area that is now southwestern [[China]], so any genetic similarity between the present-day speakers of the Munda languages and the "original inhabitants" of India is likely to be due to assimilation of the natives by Southeast Asian immigrants speaking a proto-Munda language.
The best-known Dravidian languages are [[Tamil language|Tamil]] (தமிழ்), [[Telugu language|Telugu]] (తెలుగు), [[Kannada language|Kannada]] (ಕನ್ನಡ) and [[Malayalam language|Malayalam]] (മലയാളം). There are three subgroups within the Dravidian linguistic family: North Dravidian, Central Dravidian, and South Dravidian, matching for the most part the corresponding regions in the Indian subcontinent.
Dravidian languages are spoken by more than 200 million people. They appear to be unrelated to languages of other known families like [[Indo-European languages|Indo-European]], specifically [[Indo-Aryan languages|Indo-Aryan]], which is the other common language family on the Indian subcontinent. Some [[linguists|linguistic scholars]] incorporate the Dravidian languages into a larger [[Elamo-Dravidian language family]], which includes the [[ancient]] [[Elamite language]] (''Haltami'') of what is now south-western Iran. Dravidian is one of the primary linguistic groups in the proposed [[Nostratic]] language system, linking almost all languages in North Africa, Europe and Western Asia into a common family with its origins in the [[Fertile Crescent]] sometime between the last [[Ice Age]] and the emergence of [[Proto-Indo-European language|proto-Indo-European]] 4-6 thousand years BC. {{citation needed|date=March 2010}}
Dravidian grammatical impact on the structure and syntax of Indo-Aryan languages is considered far greater than the Indo-Aryan grammatical impact on Dravidian. Some linguists explain this anomaly by arguing that Middle Indo-Aryan and New Indo-Aryan were built on a Dravidian [[substratum]].<ref>Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003) ''The Dravidian Languages'' Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-77111-0 at p. 40-41.</ref>
== वांशिक ओळख ==
=== "द्राविडी लोकां"ची संकल्पना ===
The term Dravidian is taken from the [[Sanskrit]] term ''Dravida'', historically referring to Tamil.<ref>{{संकेतस्थळ स्रोत |दुवा= http://www.hindu.com/fline/fl2022/stories/20031107000807300.htm |शीर्षक= Facts about Dravidian languages |आडनाव= Annamalai |पहिलेनाव= E. |दिनांक= 2003-11-07 |अ‍ॅक्सेसदिनांक= 2008-09-17}}</ref> It was adopted following the publication of [[Robert Caldwell]]'s ''Comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages'' (1856); a publication that established the language grouping as one of the major language groups of the world. Over seventy-three languages are presently listed as Dravidian.<ref>[http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90422 Ethnologue study]</ref> Further, the languages are spread out and cover parts of India, south eastern Iran, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.<ref>[http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/months/april/DravidianLanguageFamily.htm Dravidian language family study]</ref> [[Robert Caldwell]] was an Anglican missionary and used the term Dravidian to refer to the people of South India.<ref>P. 678 ''Dancing With Siva: Hinduism's Contemporary Catechism'', By Himalayan Academy, Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami, Master Subramuniya.</ref>
Although in modern times speakers of the various Dravidian languages have mainly occupied the southern portion of India, nothing definite is known about the ancient domain of the Dravidian parent speech. It is, however, a well-established and well-supported hypothesis that Dravidian speakers must have been widespread throughout India, including the northwest region.<ref>"Dravidian languages." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 5 June 2008</ref>
* [http://www.harappa.com/ Harappa.com Glimpses of South Asia before 1947]
* [http://inic.utexas.edu/asnic/subject/peoplesandlanguages.html Peoples and Languages in pre-Islamic Indus valley]
[[वर्ग:वांशिक समूह]]
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