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मलबार किंवा मलबार विभाग/किनारपट्टी (मल्याळमः മലബാര് ) [मला/माला/मालै/माळा/माळै म्हणजे टेकड्यांची रांगा,पर्वतरांग आणि बार म्हणजे पट्टी (पट्टिनम्/पट्टनम्/पुरम) ह्या शब्दाचे इंग्रजीतील समानार्थी रुप "बार"]is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The name is thought to be derived from the Malayalam word Mala (Hill) and Puram (region) derived or westernised into bar. This part of India was a part of the British East India company controlled Madras State,when it was designated as Malabar District . It included the northern half of the state of केरळ and some coastal regions of present day Karnataka. The area is predominantly Hindu but the majority of केरळ's Muslim population known as Mappila also live in this area, as well as a sizable ancient Christian population. The name is sometimes extended to the entire southwestern coast of the peninsula, called the Malabar Coast. Malabar is also used by ecologists to refer to the tropical moist forests of southwestern India (present day केरळ).
मलबार (विभाग)संपादन करा
The Malabar region lies along the southwest coast of the Indian peninsula and forms the northern part of present-day केरळ state. Malayalam is the chief language of the region, and the ancestors of today's population have inhabited the region for centuries. The region formed part of the ancient kingdom of Chera until the early 12th century. Following the breakup of the Chera Kingdom, the chieftains of the region proclaimed there independence. Notable among these were the Kolathiris of North Malabar, Zamorins of Calicut and the Valluvokonathiris of Walluvanad. The Zamorin of Calicut became the most powerful of the Kings in the region by the 13th century primarily due to flourishing international trade at Calicut and Beypore port. The region came under British rule in the 18th century, during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. During the British rules, the Malabar area was divided in to two categories as North and South. North Malabar comprises : Present Kasaragod and Kannur Districts, Mananthavady Taluk of Wayanad District and Vadakara Taluk of Kozhikode District. Left over area in South Malabar.
At the conclusion of the Anglo-Mysore wars, the region was organized into a district of Madras Presidency. The British district included the present-day districts of Kannur, Kozhikode, Wayanad, Malappuram, much of Palakkad and a small portion of Thrissur. The administrative headquarters was at Calicut (Kozhikode). With India's independence, Madras presidency became Madras State, which was divided along linguistic lines on 1 November 1956, whereupon Malabar district was merged with the Kasaragod district immediately to the north and the state of Travancore-Cochin to the south to form the state of केरळ.
मलबार कोस्ट्/किनारपट्टीसंपादन करा
The Malabar Coast, in historical contexts, refers to India's southwest coast, lying on the narrow coastal plain of Karnataka and केरळ states between the Western Ghats range and the Arabian Sea. The coast runs from south of Goa to Cape Comorin on India's southern tip.
The Malabar Coast is also sometimes used as an all encompassing term for the entire Indian coast from the western coast of Konkan to the tip of the subcontinent at Cape Comorin. It is over 525 miles or 845 km long. It spans from the South - Western coast of महाराष्ट्र and goes along the coastal region of Goa, through the entire western coast of Karnataka and केरळ and reaches till Kanyakumari. It is flanked by the Arabian Sea on the west and the Western Ghats on the east. The Southern part of this narrow coast is the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests.
The Malabar Coast features a number of historic port cities. Notable among these are the Muziris, Beypore and Thundi (near Kadalundi) during ancient times and Kozhikode (Calicut), Cochin, and Kannur in the medieval period and have served as centers of the Indian Ocean trade for centuries. Because of their orientation to the sea and to maritime commerce, the coastal cities of Malabar are very cosmopolitan and have hosted some of the first groups of Christians (now known as Syrian Malabar Nasranis), Jews (today called as Cochin Jews), and Muslims (at present known as Mappilas) in India.
मलबार वर्षावनेसंपादन करा
- the Malabar Coast moist forests formerly occupied the coastal zone to the 250 meter elevation (but 95% of these forests no longer exist)
- the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests grow at intermediate elevations
- the South Western Ghats montane rain forests cover the areas above 1000 meters elevation
हेसुद्धा पाहासंपादन करा
- "केरळ." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 8 June 2008