|हे पान अनाथ आहे.|
|जानेवारी २०११च्या सुमारास या पानाला विकिपीडियावरील इतर कोणत्याही पानावरुन दुवे नव्हते. या पानावरील माहितीशी सुसंगत पानांवरुन येथे दुवे द्या आणि मग हा साचा काढून टाका.|
|ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.
- Distinguish from Corporation.
Cooperation, co-operation, or coöperation is the process of working or acting together, which can be accomplished by both intentional and non-intentional agents. In its simplest form it involves things working in harmony, side by side, while in its more complicated forms, it can involve something as complex as the inner workings of a human being or even the social patterns of a nation. It is the alternative to working separately in competition. Cooperation can also be accomplished by computers, which can handle shared resources simultaneously, while sharing processor time.
सहकार पद्धतीसंपादन करा
Cooperation, more formally speak is how the components of a system work together to achieve the global properties. In other words, individual components that appear to be “selfish” and independent work together to create a highly complex, greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts system. Examples can be found all around us. The components in a cell work together to keep it living. Cells work together and communicate to produce multicellular organisms. Organisms form food chains and ecosystems. People form families, gangs, cities and nations. Neurons create thought and consciousness. Atoms cooperate in a simple way, by combining to make up molecules. Understanding the mechanisms that create cooperating agents in a system is one of the most important and least well understood phenomena in nature, though there has not been a lack of effort.
However, cooperation may be coerced (forced), voluntary (freely chosen), or even unintentional, and consequently individuals and groups might cooperate even though they have almost nothing in common qua interests or goals. Examples of that can be found in market trade, military wars, families, workplaces, schools and prisons, and more generally any institution or organisation of which individuals are part (out of own choice, by law, or forced).
The Prisoner's Dilemma [मराठी शब्द सुचवा]संपादन करा
Even if all members of a group would benefit if all cooperate, individual self-interest may not favor cooperation. The prisoner's dilemma codifies this problem and has been the subject of much research, both theoretical and experimental. Results from experimental economics show that humans often act more cooperatively than strict self-interest would seem to dictate.
One reason for this may be that if the prisoner's dilemma situation is repeated (the iterated prisoner's dilemma), it allows non-cooperation to be punished more, and cooperation to be rewarded more, than the single-shot version of the problem would suggest. It has been suggested that this is one reason for the evolution of complex emotions in higher life forms, who, at least as infants, and usually thereafter, cannot survive without cooperating – although with maturation they gain much more choice about the kinds of cooperation they wish to have.
There are four main conditions that tend to be necessary for cooperative behaviour to develop between two individuals:
- An overlap in desires
- A chance of future encounters with the same individual
- Memory of past encounters with that individual
- A value associated with future outcomes
हेसुद्धा पाहासंपादन करा
लेखात प्रयूक्त संज्ञासंपादन करा
शब्दाचा विशेष संदर्भ/अर्थ छटासंपादन करा
|प्रयूक्त शब्द||विशेष संदर्भ/अर्थ छटा|
इंग्रजी मराठी संज्ञासंपादन करा
- The Evolution of Cooperation, Robert Axelrod, Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-02121-2
- The Complexity of Cooperation, Robert Axelrod, Princeton Paperbacks, ISBN 0-691-01567-8
- The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins (1990), second edition – includes two chapters about the evolution of cooperation, ISBN 0-19-286092-5
- The Seven Challenges: A Workbook and Reader About Communicating More Cooperatively, Dennis Rivers, fourth edition, 2005 – treats cooperation as a set of skills that can be improved.
- Herbert Gintis, Samuel Bowles, Robert T. Boyd, Ernst Fehr (eds.), Moral Sentiments and Material Interests: The Foundations of Cooperation in Economic Life (Economic Learning and Social Evolution). MIT 2005
- John McMurtry, "How Competition Goes Wrong." Journal of Applied Philosophy, 8(2): 200–210, 1991.
बाह्य दुवेसंपादन करा
- PDF The Cooperation Project: Objectives, Accomplishments, and Proposals [rheingold.com Howard Rheingold's project with Institute for the Future.
- cooperation platform for transport research (scientific) more
- The Far Games A list of games using theatrical improvisation to encourage collaboration and distributed leadership