"मध्य आशिया" च्या विविध आवृत्यांमधील फरक

२०७ बाइट्सची भर घातली ,  ८ वर्षांपूर्वी
r2.7.2) (सांगकाम्याने बदलले: fa:آسیای مرکزی; cosmetic changes
छो (r2.5.2) (सांगकाम्याने वाढविले: ku:Asyaya Navîn, ky:Орто Азия काढले: tt:Урта Азия)
छो (r2.7.2) (सांगकाम्याने बदलले: fa:آسیای مرکزی; cosmetic changes)
== भूगोल ==
[[Imageचित्र:Location-Asia-UNsubregions.png|thumb|225px|[[संयुक्त राष्ट्रे|संयुक्त राष्ट्रांच्या]] व्याख्येनुसार [[आशिया]]चे भौगोलिक प्रदेश:
{{legend|#0000E0|[[सायबेरिया|उत्तर आशिया]]}}
{{legend|#E000E0|मध्य आशिया}}
== भूभाग व तपशील ==
[[चित्र:Central Asia - political map 2008.svg|उजवे|300 px|इवलेसे|मध्य आशियाचा नकाशा]]
{| class="wikitable sortable"
== संस्कृती ==
[[इस्लाम]] हा मध्य आशिया, [[अफगाणिस्तान]] व [[शिंच्यांग]] भागातील प्रमुख [[धर्म]] आहे. येथील बहुसंख्य लोक [[सुन्नी इस्लाम|सुन्नी]] पंथाचे आहेत व अफगाणिस्तानाच्या काही भागांत [[शिया इस्लाम|शिया]] पंथीय अल्पसंख्य वस्ती आहे. इस्लामच्या उदयापूर्वी [[पारशी धर्म|पारशी]] व [[बौद्ध धर्म|बौद्ध]] हे मध्य आशियातील प्रमुख धर्म होते.
== महत्वाची सांस्कृतिक व आर्थिक केंद्रे ==
{|class="wikitable sortable"
| [[अस्ताना]]
| {{देशध्वज|Kazakhstan}}
| 700,000<br />(2009)
| [[Fileचित्र:Astana1.jpeg|200px]]
| The capital and second largest city in Kazakhstan. After Kazakhstan gained its independence in 1991, the city and the region were renamed Aqmola. The name was often translated as "White Tombstone", but actually means "Holy Place" or "Holy Shrine". The "White Tombstone" literal translation was too appropriate for many visitors to escape notice in almost all guide books and travel accounts. In 1994, the city was designated as the future capital of the newly independent country and again renamed to the present Astana after the capital was officially moved from [[Almaty]] in 1997.
| [[अल्माटी]]
| {{देशध्वज|Kazakhstan}}
| 1,420,747<br />(2009)
| [[Imageचित्र:Almaty-mountains.jpg|200px]]
| It was the capital of Kazakhstan (and its predecessor, the [[Kazakh SSR]]) from 1929 to 1998. Despite losing its status as the capital, Almaty remains the major commercial center of Kazakhstan. It is a recognised financial centre of Kazakhstan and the Central Asian region.
| [[अश्गाबाद]]
| {{देशध्वज|Turkmenistan}}
| 695,300<br />(2001)
| [[Imageचित्र:PresidentialPalaceAshgabat.jpg|200px]]
| The capital and largest city of Turkmenistan. Ashgabat is a relatively young city, growing out of a village of the same name established by [[Russian Empire|Russians]] in 1818. It is not far from the site of [[Nisa (village)|Nisa]], the ancient capital of the [[Parthia]]ns, and it grew on the ruins of the [[Silk Road]] city of Konjikala, which was first mentioned as a wine-producing village in the 2nd century BCE and was leveled by an earthquake in the 1st century BCE (a precursor of the 1948 Ashgabat earthquake). Konjikala was rebuilt because of its advantageous location on the Silk Road, and it flourished until its destruction by Mongols in the 13th century CE. After that, it survived as a small village until the Russians took over in the 19th century.<ref>[http://www.geographicbureau.com/trips/central_asia/turkmenistan/info/brief_description_of_the_main_s.jdx Konjikala]: the Silk Road precursor of Ashgabat</ref><ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=UGanxmJgQNIC&pg=PA40&lpg=PA40&dq=konjikala&source=bl&ots=76-v-N-YOn&sig=_SxnsotPclSEHqnFjepj4qQhlzc&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPA41,M1 Konjikala], in: MaryLee Knowlton, ''Turkmenistan'', Marshall Cavendish, 2006, pp. 40-41, ISBN 0-7614-2014-2, ISBN 978-0-7614-2014-9 (viewable on [[Google Books]]).</ref>
| [[काबुल]]
| {{देशध्वज|Afghanistan}}
| 3,000,000<br />(2008)
| [[Imageचित्र:Kabul Skyline.jpg|200px]]
| The capital and largest city of Afghanistan. The city of Kabul is thought to have been established between 2000&nbsp;BCE and 1500&nbsp;BCE.<ref>''The history of Afghanistan'', [http://www.gandhara.com.au/afghan_table.html Ghandara.com website]</ref> In the [[Rigveda|Rig Veda]] (composed between 1700–1100&nbsp;BCE), the word ''Kubhā'' is mentioned, which appears to refer to the [[Kabul River]].<ref>[http://books.google.com/books?id=KG0xJ659O1QC&pg=PA385 "Kabul" ''Chambers's Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge'' (1901 edition) J.B. Lippincott Company, NY, page 385]</ref>
| [[पेशावर]]
| {{देशध्वज|Pakistan}}
| 2,955,254<br />(2006)
| [[Imageचित्र:Islamia.jpg|200px]]
| Peshawar is the capital of the [[North-West Frontier Province]] of Pakistan, located on the edge of the [[Khyber Pass]] near the [[Afghanistan|Afghan]] border. In ancient times, a major settlement called Purushpur ([[Sanskrit]] for "city of men") was established by [[Kanishka]], the [[Kushans|Kushan]] king, in the general area of modern Peshawar. Purushpur emerged as a major center of Buddhist learning, and the capital of the ancient [[Gandhara]] was moved to Peshawar in the 2nd century CE. During much of its history, Peshawar was one of the main trading centres on the ancient [[Silk Road]] and was a major crossroads for various cultures between Central Asia, [[South Asia]] and the [[Middle East]].
| [[मशहद]]
| {{देशध्वज|Iran}}
| 2,427,316<br />(2006)
| [[Imageचित्र:Imam Ali Reza.jpg|200px]]
| The second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the [[Shia]] world. At the beginning of the 9th century (3rd century AH), Mashhad was a small village called Sanabad situated 24&nbsp;km away from [[Tous, Iran|Tus]]. It was not considered a great city until [[Mongol raids]] in 1220 caused the destruction of many large cities in the [[Greater Khorasan]] territories, leaving Mashhad relatively intact. Thus, the survivors of the massacres migrated to Mashhad.<ref name="Zabeth 1999 pp. 14-15">Zabeth (1999) pp. 14-15</ref>
| [[उरुम्छी]]
| {{flagicon|PRC}} [[शिंच्यांग]], [[चीन]]
| 2,681,834<br />(2006)
| The capital and largest city in [[Xinjiang|Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region]] and the cultural center of the [[Uyghur people|Uyghurs]]. Two thousand years ago, Ürümqi was an important town on the northern route of the [[Silk Road]], a vast network of trade routes that also facilitated cultural exchanges throughout [[Eurasia]].
| [[मझार-ए-शरीफ]]
| {{देशध्वज|Afghanistan}}
| 300,600<br />(2008)
| [[Imageचित्र:Mazar-e sharif - Steve Evans.jpg|200px]]
| The fourth largest city in Afghanistan and capital of [[Balkh province]] is linked by roads to [[Kabul]] in the southeast, [[Herat]] to the west and Uzbekistan to the north.
| [[उलानबातर]]
| {{देशध्वज|Mongolia}}
| 1,067,472<br />(2008)
| [[Fileचित्र:UlaanBaatar-2009.jpg|200px]]
| The capital and largest city in [[Mongolia]] and the cultural center of the [[Mongolian people|Mongolians]]. The city was founded in 1639 as an initially nomadic [[Buddhism in Mongolia|Buddhist]] [[Buddhist monasticism|monastic]] centre. Since 1778, it has been located in the Tuul River valley. In the 20th century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing centre.
| [[समरकंद]]
| {{देशध्वज|Uzbekistan}}
| 596,300<br />(2008)
| [[Imageचित्र:Samarkand view from the top.jpg|200px]]
| The second largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of [[Samarqand Province]]. The city is most noted for its central position on the [[Silk Road]] between [[People's Republic of China|China]] and the West, and for being an Islamic centre for scholarly study.
| [[बिश्केक]]
| {{देशध्वज|Kyrgyzstan}}
| 1,250,000<br />(2007)
| [[Fileचित्र:Bischkek.jpg|200px]]
| The capital and the largest city of Kyrgyzstan. Bishkek is also the administrative center of [[Chuy Province]], which surrounds the city, even though the city itself is not part of the province, but rather a province-level unit of Kyrgyzstan.
| {{देशध्वज|Uzbekistan}}
| 2,180,000<br />(2008)
| [[Fileचित्र:Aerial view of Tashkent, Uzbekistan.JPG|200px]]
| The capital and largest city of Uzbekistan. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the province were known as Chach. Tashkent started as an [[oasis]] on the [[Chirchik River]], near the foothills of the [[Golestan]] Mountains. In ancient times, this area contained Beitian, probably the summer "capital" of the [[Kangju]] confederacy.<ref>Pulleyblank, Edwin G. 1963. "The consonantal system of Old Chinese." ''Asia Major 9'' (1963), p. 94.</ref>
| {{देशध्वज|Iran}}
| N/A
| [[Imageचित्र:Ferdowsi tomb1.jpg|200px]]
| An ancient city in the Iranian province of [[Razavi Khorasan]]. To the ancient Greeks, it was known as Susia (Gr. ''Σούσια''). It was captured by Alexander the Great in 330&nbsp;BC. The city was almost entirely destroyed by [[Genghis Khan]]'s Mongol conquest in 1220.
| [[दुशान्बे]]
| {{देशध्वज|Tajikistan}}
| 679,400<br />(2008)
| [[Fileचित्र:Dushanbe1.JPG|200px]]
| The capital and largest city of Tajikistan. Dushanbe means "Monday" in [[Tajik language|Tajik]] and [[Persian language|Persian]],<ref>D. Saimaddinov, S. D. Kholmatova, and S. Karimov, ''Tajik-Russian Dictionary'', Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature, Scientific Center for Persian-Tajik Culture, Dushanbe, 2006.</ref> and the name reflects the fact that the city grew on the site of a village that originally was a popular Monday [[marketplace]].
| [[बुखारा]]
| {{देशध्वज|Uzbekistan}}
| 237,900<br />(1999)
| [[Fileचित्र:Hanaka Bukhara.JPG|200px]]
| The nation's fifth-largest city and the capital of the [[Bukhara Province]] of Uzbekistan. Bukhara has been one of the main centres of Persian civilization from its early days in the 6th century BCE, and, since 12th century CE, Turkic speakers gradually moved in. Its architecture and archaeological sites form one of the pillars of Central Asian history and art.
| [[निशापूर]]
| {{देशध्वज|Iran}}
| 270,972<br />(2006)
| [[Fileचित्र:Attar mausoleum0.jpg|200px]]
| The city is located in the [[Razavi Khorasan province]] in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the [[Mount Binalud|Binalud Mountains]], near the regional capital of [[Mashhad]]. It is the hometown of several respected Persian poets and artists, including [[Omar Khayyám]], [[Attar Neyshapuri]] and [[Kamal-ol-molk]].
== संदर्भ ==
[[eu:Erdialdeko Asia]]
[[fa:آسیای میانهمرکزی]]
[[fr:Asie centrale]]