"केरळ" च्या विविध आवृत्यांमधील फरक

७,२१३ बाइट्सची भर घातली ,  १० वर्षांपूर्वी
[[Image:Munnar hillstation kerala.jpg|thumb|right|Munnar hill station, Kerala]]
Kerala is wedged between the [[Laccadive Sea]] and the [[Western Ghats]]. Lying between north latitudes 8°18' and 12°48' and east longitudes 74°52' and 72°22',<ref name = "GOK_2005b"/> Kerala experiences the humid [[equatorial]] tropic climate. The state has a coast of length {{km to mi | 590 | abbr=yes}}<ref>[http://www.fisheries.kerala.gov.in/glance.htm MARINE FISHERIES OF KERALA AT A GLANCE 2005 - Selected Indicators]Dept. of Fisheries, Govt of Kerala</ref> and the width of the state varies between 35 and 120&nbsp;km (22–75 miles). Geographically, Kerala can be divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands (rugged and cool mountainous terrain), the central midlands (rolling hills), and the western lowlands (coastal plains). Located at the extreme southern tip of the [[Indian subcontinent]], Kerala lies near the centre of the [[Indian Plate|Indian]] [[tectonic plate]]; hence, most of the state is subject to comparatively little [[earthquake|seismic]] and volcanic activity.<ref>{{cite map |publisher=United Nations Development Programme |year=2002 |title=Map Showing Multi Hazard Zones in Kerala |url=http://www.undp.org.in/dmweb/Multihazard/Maps/Multihazard/kerala.jpg |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20061108004906/http://www.undp.org.in/dmweb/Multihazard/Maps/Multihazard/kerala.jpg |archivedate=2006-11-08 |accessdate=2006-01-12 }}</ref> [[Pre-Cambrian]] and [[Pleistocene]] geological formations compose the bulk of Kerala’s terrain.
Eastern Kerala consists of high mountains, gorges and deep-cut valleys immediately west of the Western Ghats' [[rain shadow]]. Forty-one of Kerala’s west-flowing rivers, and three of its east-flowing ones originate in this region. The Western Ghats form a wall of mountains interrupted only near [[Palakkad]], where the [[Palakkad Gap]] breaks through to provide access to the rest of India. The Western Ghats rises on average to 1,500&nbsp;m (4920&nbsp;ft) above sea level, while the highest peaks may reach to 2,500&nbsp;m (8200&nbsp;ft). [[Anamudi]] is the highest peak at an elevation of 2,695 metres (8,130&nbsp;ft). Just west of the mountains lie the midland plains comprising central Kerala, dominated by rolling hills and valleys.<ref name = "GOK_2005b"/> Generally ranging between elevations of 250–1,000&nbsp;m (820–3300&nbsp;ft), the eastern portions of the [[Nilgiri Hills|Nilgiri]] and [[Palni Hills]] include such formations as [[Agastyamala]] and [[Anamala]].
Kerala’s western coastal belt is relatively flat, and is criss-crossed by a network of interconnected [[brackish]] [[canal]]s, lakes, [[estuary|estuaries]], and rivers known as the [[Kerala Backwaters]]. Lake [[Vembanad Lake|Vembanad]]—Kerala’s largest body of water—dominates the Backwaters; it lies between Alappuzha and Kochi and is more than 200&nbsp;km² in area. Around 8% of India's waterways (measured by length) are found in Kerala.<ref name="IWAI_2005">{{harvnb|Inland Waterways Authority of India|2005}}</ref> The most important of Kerala’s [[List of rivers in Kerala|forty-four rivers]] include the [[Periyar River|Periyar]] (244&nbsp;km), the [[Bharathapuzha]] (209&nbsp;km), the [[Pamba]] (176&nbsp;km), the [[Chaliyar River|Chaliyar]] (169&nbsp;km), the Kadalundipuzha (130&nbsp;km), the [[Valapattanam River|Valapattanam]] (129&nbsp;km) and the [[Achankovil River|Achankovil]] (128&nbsp;km). The average length of the rivers of Kerala is 64&nbsp;km. Many of the rivers are small and entirely fed by [[monsoon]] rains.<ref name = "GOK_2005b"/> These conditions result in the nearly year-round water logging of such western regions as [[Kuttanad]], 500&nbsp;km² of which lies below sea level. As Kerala's rivers are small and lack [[river delta|deltas]], they are more prone to environmental factors. The rivers also face problems such as sand mining and pollution.<ref name="Padmalal">Padmalal D, Maya K, Sreebha S & Sreeja R, 2007, Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of Vembanad lake, Southwest coast of India, Environmental Geology 54(4), 879-889. [http://www.springerlink.com/content/r6x802r243782121/], Retrieved on July 17, 2009.</ref> The state experiences several [[Geography of Kerala|natural hazards]] such as [[landslide]]s, [[floods]], [[lightning]] and [[droughts]]. The state was also affected by the [[2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami]].
A catastrophic flood occurred in Kerala in 1341 CE that drastically modified the terrain and consequently affected the history.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thehindu.com/2009/06/22/stories/2009062253680500.htm |title=Kerala / Kochi News : Bringing the Muziris experience back to life |publisher=The Hindu |date=2009-06-22 |accessdate=2010-02-25}}</ref> The flood resulted in changing the course of the river [[Periyar river|Periyar]], recession of [[Arabian Sea]] by several miles downwards making the [[Kuttanad]] region cultivable, closure of the [[Muziris]] ([[Kodungalloor]]) [[harbour]] and creation of a new harbour at [[Kochi]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.kerelatourism.com/kochi.html |title=Kerela Tourism,Kerala Tour packages,Kerla Tours |publisher=Kerelatourism.com |date= |accessdate=2010-02-25}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=USA |url=http://www.helium.com/items/1344783-history-of-cochin |title=History of Cochin, Kerala, India - by Nayab Naseer |publisher=Helium |date= |accessdate=2010-02-25}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.india9.com/i9show/-Kerala/Ettumanoor/Kaduthuruthy-53206.htm |title=Kaduthuruthy in Kaduthuruthy India |publisher=India9.com |date=2005-06-07 |accessdate=2010-02-25}}</ref>
With 120–140 rainy days per year, Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the [[Monsoon#South-West Summer Monsoon|southwest summer monsoon]].<ref name="Chacko_2002">{{cite journal |author=Chacko T |coauthors=Renuka G |year=2002 |title=Temperature mapping, thermal diffusivity and subsoil heat flux at Kariavattom, Kerala |journal=Proc Indian Acad Sci (Earth Planet Sci) }}</ref>{{rp|80}} In eastern Kerala, a drier tropical wet and dry climate prevails. Kerala's rainfall averages 3,107&nbsp;mm annually. Some of Kerala's drier lowland regions average only 1,250&nbsp;mm; the mountains of eastern [[Idukki district]] receive more than 5,000&nbsp;mm of [[Precipitation (meteorology)#Orographic precipitation|orographic precipitation]], the highest in the state.
During summer, Kerala is prone to gale force winds, storm surges, [[cyclone]]-related torrential downpours, occasional droughts, and rises in sea level.<ref name="Brenkert_Malone_2003">{{cite journal |author=Brenkert A |coauthors=Malone E |year=2003 |title=Vulnerability and resilience of India and Indian states to climate change: a first-order approximation |journal=Joint Global Change Research Institute }}</ref>{{rp|26, 46, 52}} The mean daily temperatures range from 19.8&nbsp;°C to 36.7&nbsp;°C.<ref name = "GOK_2005b"/> Mean annual temperatures range from 25.0–27.5&nbsp;°C in the coastal lowlands to 20.0–22.5&nbsp;°C in the eastern highlands.<ref name="Brenkert_Malone_2003"/>{{rp|65}}
यावरील विस्तृत लेख पहा - [[केरळमधील जिल्हे]]
केरळ राज्यात १४ जिल्हे आहेत.
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