"केरळ" च्या विविध आवृत्यांमधील फरक

३०५ बाइट्सची भर घातली ,  १० वर्षांपूर्वी
बदलांचा आढावा नाही
A 3rd-century-BC rock inscription by emperor [[Asoka the Great]] attests to a ''Keralaputra''.<ref>http://kerala.gov.in/keralacalljan_08/pg45.pdf</ref> Around 1 BC the region was ruled by the [[Chera Dynasty]], which traded with the [[ancient Greece|Greeks]], [[ancient Rome|Romans]] and [[Arabs]]. The Tamil [[Chera dynasty]], [[Ay]]s and the [[Pandyan Empire]] were the traditional rulers of Kerala whose patriarchal dynasties ruled until the 14th century.<ref name="">{{cite web|url= |title=Ancient History Sourcebook: Pliny: Natural History 6.96-111. (On India) |publisher= |date=2009-05-06 |accessdate=2009-07-30}}</ref><ref name="Books.google.co.in">{{cite web|url=http://books.google.co.in/books?id=rQipbjusDyQC&pg=PA301&lpg=PA301&dq=nelcynda&source=bl&ots=gAMpwkJNyJ&sig=Bp8SgxOsnAyK7Pd1dlJMF_dqdxk&hl=en&ei=o8xoSr3TCc-JkQXX8JCoCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3 |title=History of ancient geography - Google Books |publisher=Books.google.co.in |date= |accessdate=2009-07-30}}</ref> The Chera Kingdom were Patriarchal in descendency. The Cheras collapsed after repeated attacks from the neighbouring Chola and Rashtrakuta kingdoms. Feudal [[Namboothiri]] [[Brahmin]] and [[Nair]] city-states subsequently gained control of the region.<ref name="keralagovl">{{cite web |title=Early history of Kerala |publisher=Government of Kerala |accessdate=2007-05-16 |url=http://www.kerala.gov.in/history&culture/earlyhistory.htm }}</ref> Kolla Varsham or Malayalam Era, which is assumed to have been established by King Udaya Marthanda Varma in 825 AD, serves as the official calendar of Kerala.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.kerala.gov.in/disttourism/klm.htm |title=officialwebsite of |publisher=Kerala.gov.in |date= |accessdate=2009-07-30}}</ref> Early contact with Europeans gave way to struggles between colonial and native interests. After independence, Kerala state was created in 1956 from the former state of [[Travancore-Cochin]], [[Malabar district]] of [[Madras State]], and [[Kasaragod]] taluk of [[Dakshina Kannada]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hindu.com/yw/2003/11/01/stories/2003110101270300.htm |title=The land that arose from the sea |publisher=The Hindu |date= |accessdate=2009-07-30}}</ref>
केरळ हे भारतातील दुसर्‍या क्रंमाकाचे पर्यटन राज्य आहे. केरळचे सृष्टीसौंदर्य पहायला व आयुर्वेदीक उपचारांसाठी देशातून तसेच जगभरातून हजारो प्रवासी येतात. <ref>http://www.thehindu.com/2009/10/30/stories/2009103051440300.htm</ref> केरळचा व्यक्तीविकास सूचांक भारतात सर्वात अधिक आहे. याचे मुख्य कारण केरळ भारतातील सर्वात शिक्षितांचे राज्य आहे. राज्यातील साक्षरतेचे प्रमाण १०० टक्यांच्या जवळ आहे. <ref>[http://data.undp.org.in/hdrc/ihds/TrendsHDISelctdStat.pdf UNDP HDI Trends (1981-2001) for selected Major Indian States]</ref><ref>[http://www.financialexpress.com/news/tn-makes-its-way-to-top-5-states-in-hdi/287643 TN makes its way to top 5 states in HDI] Financial Express -Monday, Mar 24, 2008</ref> The state has a literacy rate of 91 percent,<ref name="nfhsindia.org"/> the२००५ highestमधील inएका India.सर्वक्षणानुसार Aकेरळ surveyहे conductedभारतातील inसर्वात 2005कमी byभ्रष्ट [[Transparencyराज्य International]]आहे. ranked Kerala as the least corrupt state in the country.<ref>{{cite web |title=India Corruption Study&nbsp;— 2005 |publisher=[[Transparency International]] |month=June | year=2005 |accessdate=2007-11-11 |url=http://www.transparency.org/regional_pages/asia_pacific/newsroom/news_archive__1/india_corruption_study_2005 }}</ref> Keralaकेरळने गेल्या काही वर्षांमध्ये मोठ्या प्रमाणावर स्थानिक लोकांचे स्थालांतर पाहिले आहे. कामाच्या निमित्तानेKerala has witnessed significant migration of its people, especially to the [[Persian Gulf states|Persian Gulf countries]], starting with the [[Kerala Gulf boom]], and is uniquely dependent on [[remittances]] from its large Malayali expatriate community.<ref name="rem1">{{cite web|url=http://ideas.repec.org/p/ind/cdswpp/328.html|title=Kerala's Gulf connection: Emigration, remittances and their macroeconomic impact 1972-2000|year=2002|author=K.P. Kannan, K.S. Hari}}</ref><ref name="rem2">{{cite web|url=http://www.iss.nl/content/download/8303/81035/file/Panel%202_Rajan.pdf|format=PDF|title=Remittances and its impact on the Kerala Economy and Society|year=2007|author=S Irudaya Rajan, K.C. Zachariah}}</ref><ref name="abroad">{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/07/world/asia/07migrate.html?_r=1&pagewanted=1|title=Jobs Abroad Support ‘Model’ State in India|publisher=New York Times|year=2007}}</ref>