"तमिळ लोक" च्या विविध आवृत्यांमधील फरक

३९ बाइट्सची भर घातली ,  ४ वर्षांपूर्वी
छो
re-categorisation
छो (re-categorisation)
[[Tamil language|Tamil]] was the first Indian language to be given classical status. It has the oldest extant [[Tamil literature|literature]] amongst other [[Dravidian languages]].<ref name="burton1">{{cite journal | quotes = | author = Burton Stein | date =
| year = 1977 | month = November | title = Circulation and the Historical Geography of Tamil Country | journal = The Journal of Asian Studies
| volume = 37 | issue = 1 | pages = 7–26 | issn = | doi = 10.2307/2053325| id = | url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-9118%28197711%2937%3A1%3C7%3ACATHGO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-O | format = | accessdate = 2007-05-03 | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote = Tamil is one of the two longest-surviving classical languages in India. }}</ref> The art and architecture of the Tamil people encompass some of the notable contributions of [[India]] and [[South-East Asia]] to the art world. The famous [[Nataraja]] sculpture became a universal symbol of [[Hinduism]]. The [[Ancient Tamil music|music]], the [[Dravidian architecture|temple architecture]] and the stylised sculptures favoured by the Tamil people in their [[Ancient Tamil country|ancient nation]] are still being learnt and practiced. Thus, Tamils have been referred to as the last surviving [[classical civilization|classical civilisation]] on Earth.<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/india/gal_india_south_03.shtml Michael Wood, BBC]</ref> The [[Pallava script]], a variant of [[Southern Brahmi]] used by the Tamil [[Pallava dynasty]], was the basis of several of the writing systems of Southeast Asia, including the [[Burmese script|Burmese]], [[Khmer script|Khmer]], [[Thai alphabet|Thai]], [[Lao script|Lao]] and [[Javanese script|Javanese]] scripts.<ref>{{Cite book | last=Daniels | first=Peter T. | contribution=Writing systems of major and minor languages | editor1-last=Kachru | editor1-first=Braj B. | editor2-last=Kachru | editor2-first=Yamuna | editor3-last=Sridhar | editor3-first=S.N. | title=Language in South Asia | publisher=Cambridge University Press | place=Cambridge | year=2008 | isbn=0521781418 | pp=285–308}} at p. 291</ref>
 
== Etymology ==
| doi = 10.2307/3517170
}}</ref> There is also evidence that at least two embassies were sent to the [[Roman Emperor]] [[Augustus]] by Pandya kings.<ref name="ebpandya">{{cite web| url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9058245/Pandya-Dynasty|title= Pandya Dynasty|work= Encyclopedia Britannica|accessdate = 2007-05-03}}</ref> [[sherd|Potsherds]] with Tamil writing have also been found in [[Excavation (archaeology)|excavations]] on the [[Red Sea]], suggesting the presence of Tamil [[merchant]]s there.<ref>{{cite web | title= Archaeologists Uncover Ancient Maritime Spice Route Between India, Egypt | work= Veluppillai, Prof. A., | url= http://www.dickran.net/history/india_egypt_trade_route.html|publisher=dickran.net | accessdate=2006-11-15}}</ref> An anonymous first century traveler's account written in [[Greek language|Greek]], ''[[Periplus Maris Erytraei]]'', describes the [[port]]s of the Pandya and Chera kingdoms in ''[[Damirica]]'' and their commercial activity in great detail. ''Periplus'' also indicates that the chief exports of the ancient Tamils were [[black pepper|pepper]], [[malabathrum]], [[pearl]]s, [[ivory]], [[silk]], [[spikenard]], [[diamond]]s, [[sapphires]], and [[tortoiseshell material|tortoiseshell]].<ref name="periplus">The term ''Periplus'' refers to the region of the eastern seaboard of South India as ''Damirica '' - {{cite web| url=http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/periplus.html|title= The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century|work= Ancient History source book}}.</ref>
 
The classical period ended around the fourth century [[Common Era|AD]] with invasions by the [[Kalabhra]], referred to as the ''kalappirar'' in Tamil literature and inscriptions.<ref name="igj" /> These invaders are described as evil kings and barbarians coming from lands to the north of the Tamil country.<ref>'Kalabhraas were denounced as 'evil kings' (''kaliararar'') - K.A.N. Sastri, ''A History of South India'', pp 130</ref> This period, commonly referred to as the Dark Age of the Tamil country, ended with the rise of the [[Pallava]] dynasty.<ref name="igj">{{cite book
=== श्रीलंकेतील तमिळ लोकं ===
{{Main|Sri Lankan Tamils}}
There is little scholarly consensus over the presence of the Tamil people in Sri Lanka, also known as [[Eelam]] in [[Sangam literature|early]] [[Tamil literature]], prior to the [[Medieval Cholas|medieval Chola]] period (circa 10th century AD). One theory states that there was not an organized Tamil presence in Sri Lanka until the invasions from what is now [[South India]] in the 10th century AD; another theory contends that Tamil people were the original inhabitants of the island.<ref>Natarajan, V., ''History of Ceylon Tamils'', p. 9</ref><ref>Manogaran, C. '' Ethnic Conflict and Reconciliation in Sri Lanka'', p. 2</ref>
 
=== प्राचीन काळातील तमिळ====
 
<!--Tamil culture is supposed to be one of the ancient and most rich culture in India. The people value their culture and tradition, but are highly tolerant and respect other culture. Tamil people are considered to be highly civilised. They like talking about the rich tradition and glory of their past, but do not forget the future.
The traditional costume of Tamil people is [[Pudavai]] [saree] for women, [[Paavaadai dhaavani]] [half-saree] for young women, and long skirt and blouse for girls. Men adorn themselves with "pattu vaetti" and chattai [shirt]. But with modernisation, men wear trousers and shirt, while women wear a wide variety of garments like chudidhar, skirts, jeans and t-shirts. In spite of modernisation that is spread all over India, there is little loss of culture among Tamil women, for even when they go abroad they do not get carried easily away by the whims and fancies of modern western world, at least with their dress codes.(Peacock, not cited and does not convey and notable facts)-->
 
=== भाषा/बोली आणि साहित्य ===
 
[[चित्र:Bharatanatyam 1.jpg|thumb|right|Young Bharatanatyam dancer]]
The dominant classical dance amongst Tamils is [[Bharatanatyam]]. Bharatanatyam is performative, rather than participative. The dance is an exposition of the story contained in a song, and is usually performed by one performer on stage, with an orchestra of drums, a drone, and one or more singers backstage. The story is told through a complicated combination of ''mudras'' (hand gestures), facial expressions, and body postures. Dancers used to be exclusively female, but the dance now also has several well-known male practitioners.<ref name="bharata"/>
 
The most notable of Tamil [[folk dance]]s is ''[[karakattam]]''. In its religious form, the dance is performed in front of an image of the goddess [[Mariamma]]. The dancer bears, on his or her head, a brass pot filled with uncooked rice, decorated with flowers and surrounded by a bamboo frame, and tumbles and leaps to the rhythm of a song without spilling a grain. Karakāṭṭam is usually performed to a special type of song, known as ''[[temmanguppattu]]'', a folk song in the mode of a lover speaking to his beloved, to the accompaniment of a ''[[nadaswaram]]'' and ''[[Thavil|melam]]''. Other Tamil folk dances include ''[[mayilattam]]'', where the dancers tie a string of peacock feathers around their waists; ''[[oyilattam]]'', danced in a circle while waving small pieces of cloth of various colors; ''[[poykkal kuthiraiyaattam]]'', in which the dancers use dummy horses; ''[[manaattam]]'', in which the dancers imitate the graceful leaping of [[deer]]; ''[[paraiyattam]]'', a dance to the sound of rhythmical drumbeats; and ''[[thippanthattam]]'', a dance involving playing with burning torches.<ref>Sharma, Manorama (2004). Folk India: A Comprehensive Study of Indian Folk Music and Culture, Vol. 11</ref> The ''kuravanci'' is a type of dance-drama, performed by four to eight women. The drama is opened by a woman playing the part of a female [[soothsayer]] of the ''[[kurava]]'' tribe(people of hills and mountains), who tells the story of a lady pining for her lover.
 
The [[therukoothu]], literally meaning "street play", is a form of village theater or folk opera. It is traditionally performed in village squares, with no sets and very simple props. The performances involve songs and dances, and the stories can be either religious or [[secularity|secular]].<ref>{{cite web | title= Tamil Art History |author= | work= | url= http://www.eelavar.com/jaffna/pageview.php?ID=578&SID=119|publisher= eelavar.com | accessdate=2006-12-05}}</ref> The performances are not formal, and performers often interact with the audience, mocking them, or involving them in the dialogue. Therukkūthu has, in recent times, been very successfully adapted to convey social messages, such as [[abstinence]] and [[caste|anti-caste]] criticism, as well as information about legal rights, and has spread to other parts of India.<ref>{{cite web | title= Striving hard to revive and refine ethnic dance form |author= | work= | url= http://www.hindu.com/mp/2006/11/11/stories/2006111100670300.htm|publisher= hindu.com | accessdate=2006-12-05}}</ref>
 
The village of [[Melattur, Tamil Nadu|Melattur]], in [[Tamil Nadu]], has a special type of performance, called the [[bhagavata]]-[[mela]], in honour of the local deity, which is performed once a year, and lasts all night. Tamil Nadu also has a well developed stage theater tradition, which has been heavily influenced by western theatre. A number of theatrical companies exist, with repertoires including [[absurdist fiction|absurdist]], [[Realism (arts)|realist]], and [[comedy|humorous]] plays.<ref>{{cite web | title= Bhagavata mela |author= | work= The Hindu, 30 April 2004 | url= http://www.hindu.com/fr/2004/04/30/stories/2004043001360600.htm|publisher= hindu.com | accessdate=2006-12-05}}</ref>
 
Both classical and folk performing arts survive in modern Tamil society. Tamil people in Tamil Nadu are also passionate about [[film]]s. The Tamil film industry, commonly dubbed [[Kollywood]], is the second-largest film industry in India.<ref>{{cite web | title= The states they're in |author= | work= Guardian, 26 November 2006 | url= http://observer.guardian.co.uk/magazine/story/0,,1955127,00.html|publisher= guardian.com | accessdate=2006-12-05}}</ref> Tamil cinema is appreciated both for its technical accomplishments, and for its artistic and entertainment value. Several actors dominated the early years of the cinema including [[Sivaji Ganesan]], [[Gemini Ganesan]], and several others. As in the past, a small number of actors continue to dominate in [[Kollywood]] movies. Several Tamil actresses have made their mark very strong in [[Bollywood]] over the years and have often dominated the scene, such as [[Vyjayanthimala]], [[Rekha Ganesan]], the original golden girl [[Hema Malini]],[[Meenakshi Sheshadri]], [[Vidya Balan]], and [[Sridevi]].<ref>http://www.filmysouth.com/tamil_movie_news/destination_bollywood/january-08-2009/destination_bollywood.html</ref> The overwhelming majority of Tamil films contain song and dance sequences, and Tamil film music is a popular genre in its own right, often liberally fusing elements of [[carnatic music|carnatic]], Tamil folk, North Indian styles, hip-hop, and [[heavy metal music|heavy metal]]. Famous music directors of the late 20th century included [[M. S. Viswanathan]], [[Ilayaraaja]], and [[A. R. Rahman]].
The most popular deity is [[Murugan]], also known as [[Karthikeya]], the son of [[Shiva|Siva]].<ref>{{cite web | title= Murukan in Cankam Literature: Veriyattu Tribal Worship|author= M. Shanmugam Pillai| work=First International Conference Seminar on Skanda-Murukan in Chennai, 28-30 December 1998. This article first appeared in the September 1999 issue of The Journal of the Institute of Asian Studies | url= http://murugan.org/research/shanmugampillai.htm | accessdate=2006-12-06}}</ref> The worship of [[Amman (goddess)|Amman]], also called [[Mariamman]], is thought to have been derived from an ancient [[mother goddess]], is also very common.<ref>{{cite web | title= Principles and Practice of Hindu Religion|author= | work=Hindu Heritage Study Program | url= http://www.bnaiyer.com/hinduism/hist-34.html | accessdate=2006-12-05}}</ref> [[Kannagi|Kan̲n̲agi]], the heroine of the [[Cilappatikaram|Cilappatikār̲am]], is worshipped as [[Pattini|Pattin̲i]] by many Tamils, particularly in [[श्रीलंका]].<ref>{{cite web | title= Tracing the Sri Lanka-Kerala link|author= PK Balachandran| work=Hindustan Times, 23 March 2006 | url= http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/5983_1657214,00430014.htm | accessdate=2006-12-05}}</ref> There are also many followers of [[Ayyavazhi]] in Tamil Nadu, mainly in the southern districts.<ref>'''Dr. R.Ponnu''''s, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and the Struggle for Social Equality in South India, (Madurai Kamaraj University) ''Ram Publishers'', Page 98</ref> In addition, there are many temples and devotees of [[Vishnu]], [[Shiva|Siva]], [[Ganapathi]], and the other Hindu deities.
 
The most important Tamil festivals are [[Pongal]], a [[harvest festival]] that occurs in mid-January, and Varudapirappu, the Tamil [[New Year]], which occurs around mid-April. Both are celebrated by almost all Tamils, regardless of religion. The [[Hindu]] festival [[Diwali|Deepavali]] is celebrated with fanfare; other local [[Hindu]] festivals include [[Thaipusam]], Panguni Uttiram, and [[Adiperukku]]. While Adiperukku is celebrated with more pomp in the Cauvery region than in others, the Ayyavazhi Festival, [[Ayya Vaikunda Avataram]], is predominantly celebrated in the southern districts of Kanyakumari, [[Tirunelveli]], and [[Thoothukudi]].<ref>[http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2006030305790400.htm&date=2006/03/03/&prd=th& Information on declaration of holiday on the event of birth anniversary of Vaikundar in ''The Hindu''], The holiday for three Districts: '''Daily Thanthi''', Daily''(Tamil)'', Nagercoil Edition, 5 March 2006</ref>
 
In rural [[Tamil Nadu]], many local deities, called [[aiyyanar|aiyyan̲ārs]], are thought to be the spirits of local heroes who protect the village from harm. Their worship often centers around nadukkal, stones erected in memory of heroes who died in battle. This form of worship is mentioned frequently in classical literature and appears to be the surviving remnants of an ancient Tamil tradition.<ref>{{cite web | title= 'Hero stone' unearthed |author= | work=The Hindu, 22 July 2006| url= http://www.hindu.com/2006/07/22/stories/2006072202680200.htm | accessdate=2006-12-05}}</ref>
 
The [[Saivism|Saivist]] sect of Hinduism is significantly represented amongst Tamils, more so among Sri Lankan Tamils, although most of the Saivist places of religious significance are in [[North India|northern India]]. The [[Alvars]] and [[Nayanars]], who were predominantly Tamils, played a key role in the renaissance of [[Bhakti]] tradition in India. In the 10th century, the philosopher [[Ramanuja]], who propagated the theory of [[Vishishtadvaita|Visishtadvaitam]], brought many changes to worshiping practices, creating new regulations on temple worship, and accepted lower-caste Hindus as his prime disciples.<ref>{{cite web | title= Redefining secularism |author= | work=The Hindu, 18 March 2004 | url= http://www.hindu.com/2004/03/18/stories/2004031801941000.htm | accessdate=2006-12-05}}</ref>
 
Christianity is believed to have come to Tamil Nadu with the arrival of [[Thomas the Apostle|St. Thomas]] the apostle, and the number of Tamil Christians grew during the colonial period. Most Tamil Christians are [[Catholic]] and [[Protestant]]. [[Islam]] started flourishing in [[Tamilnadu]] after the arrival of Sulthan Syed Ibrahim Shaheed, descendant of Prophet Muhammmad who came from [[Madinah]], [[Saudi Arabia]] during 12th century. His grave is found in [[Erwadi]] dargah in [[Ramanathapuram district]]. [[Tamil Muslim]]s are mostly either mainstream [[Sunni]] or [[Sufi]].
Each geographical area where Tamils live has developed its own distinct variant of the common dishes plus a few dishes distinctly native to itself. The [[Chettinad]] region, comprising of [[Karaikudi]] and adjoining areas, is known for both traditional vegetarian [[dishes]], like [[appam]], [[uthappam]], [[paal paniyaram]], and non-vegetarian dishes, made primarily using [[chicken]].
 
[[चित्र:Tamil Sappadu.jpg|thumb| Virundhu ‘Sappadu’ (literally 'Feast') served on a Banana leaf]]
 
Rice, the major [[staple food]] in most of Tamil, is usually steamed and served with about two to six accompanying items, which typically include [[sambar (dish)|sambar]], dry [[curry]], [[rasam]], [[kootu]], and ''thayir'' ([[curd]]) or ''moru'' ([[whey]] or [[buttermilk]]).
* [http://www.tamilnation.org/hundredtamils/index.htm One Hundred Tamils of the 20th Century]
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