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ह्या लेखाचा/विभागाचा इंग्रजी किंवा अमराठी भाषेतून मराठी भाषेत भाषांतर करावयाचे बाकी आहे. अनुवाद करण्यास आपलाही सहयोग हवा आहे. ऑनलाईन शब्दकोश आणि इतर सहाय्या करिता भाषांतर प्रकल्पास भेट द्या.

तमिळ दिनदर्शिका

The Tamil calendar is used in तमिळ नाडु and Puducherry in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore and श्रीलंका. It is used today for cultural, religious and agricultural events, with the Gregorian calendar having largely supplanted it for official use both within and outside India. The Tamil calendar is based on the classical Hindu solar calendar also used in Assam, Bengal, केरळ, Manipur, Nepal, Orissa, Rajasthan and the Punjab.

There are several festivals based on the Tamil Hindu calendar. The Tamil New Year follows the nirayanam vernal equinox and generally falls on April 13 or 14th of the Gregorian year. April 13 or 14th marks the first day of the traditional Tamil calendar and this remains a public holiday in both Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. Tropical vernal equinox fall around 22 March, and adding 23 degrees of trepidation or oscillation to it, we get the Hindu sidereal or Nirayana Mesha Sankranti (Sun's transition into nirayana Aries). Hence, the Tamil calendar begins on the same date in April which is observed by most traditional calendars of the rest of India - Assam, Bengal, केरळ, Orissa, Manipur, Nepal, Punjab etc. This also coincides with the traditional new year in Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Sri Lanka and Thailand. The 60-year cycle is also very ancient and is observed by most traditional calendars of India and China, and is related to 5 revolutions of Jupiter according to popular belief, or to 60-year orbit of Nakshatras (stars) as mentioned in Surya Siddhanta.

The traditional Tamil year starts on April 14, 2010, Kaliyuga 5112. Vikrama and Shalivahana Saka eras are also used. There are several references in early Tamil literature to the April new year. Nakkirar, the author of the Nedunalvaadai writes in the 3rd century that the Sun travels from Mesha/Chitterai through 11 successive Raasis or signs of the zodiac. Koodaloor Kizhaar in the 3rd century refers to Mesha Raasi/Chitterai as the commencement of the year in the Puranaanooru. The 8th century Silappadikaaram mentions the 12 Raasis or zodiac signs starting with Mesha/Chitterai. The Manimekalai alludes to the Hindu solar calendar as we know it today.[१].

आठवडेसंपादन करा

The days of the Tamil Calendar relate to the celestial bodies in the solar system: Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn, in that order. The week starts with Sunday.

This list compiles the days of the week in the Tamil calendar:

No. Weekday (Tamil) Weekday (English) Vaasara (Sanskrit) Lord or Planet Gregorian Calendar equivalent
01. ஞாயிற்றுக்கிழமை ञायिरु किळमै Ravi-vaasara Sun रविवार
02. திங்கட்கிழமை तिंगळ किळमै Soma-vaasara Moon सोमवार
03. செவ்வாய்க்கிழமை सेव्वाय किळमै Mangala-vaasara Mars मंगळवार
04. புதன்கிழமை बुदन किळमै Budha-vaasara Mercury बुधवार
05. வியாழக்கிழமை वियाळ किळमै Guru Vaasara Jupiter गुरूवार
06. வெள்ளிக்கிழமை वेळ्ळि किळमै Sukra-vaasara Venus शुक्रवार
07. சனிக்கிழமை सनि किळमै Shani-vaasara Saturn शनिवार

For Tamils the each day begins at the sun set and that is why it is being said on the evening of Thursday it was told it is the meeting point of Thursday and Friday which is why loans are to be eschewed during this period onwards till Friday wanes off. In this regard Parthimar Kalingar has done extensive research to prove the beginning of a Tamil day

महिनेसंपादन करा

The number of days in a month varies between 29 and 32.

The following list compiles the months of the Tamil Calendar.

No. Month (Tamil) Sanskrit Name * Month (English) Gregorian Calendar equivalent
01. சித்திரை Chaitra Cittirai mid-April to mid-May
02. வைகாசி Vaisākha Vaikāci mid-May to mid-June
03. ஆனி Jyaishtha Āni mid-June to mid-July
04. ஆடி Āshādha Āṭi mid-July to mid-August
05. ஆவணி Shrāvana Āvaṇi mid-August to mid-September
06. புரட்டாசி Bhādrapada Puraṭṭāci mid-September to mid-October
07. ஐப்பசி Ashwina Aippaci/Aippasi mid-October to mid-November
08. கார்த்திகை Kārttika Kārttikai mid-November to mid-December
09. மார்கழி Mārgashīrsha Mārkaḻi mid-December to mid-January
10. தை Pausha Tai mid-January to mid-February
11. மாசி Māgha Māci mid-February to mid-March
12. பங்குனி Phalguna Paṅkuni mid-March to mid-April

Note: The Sanskrit months above would start one month ahead of Tamil months since the Tamil calendar is a solar calendar while the Sanskrit calendar is a lunisolar calendar

ऋतूसंपादन करा

The Tamil year, in keeping with the old Indic calendar, is divided into six seasons, each of which lasts two months:

Season in Tamil English Translation Season in Sanskrit Season in English Tamil Months Gregorian Months
ila-venil Light warmth Vasanta Spring chithirai, vaigāsi Mid Apr - Mid Jun
mutu-venil Harsh warmth Grishma Summer āni, ādi Mid Jun - Mid Aug
kār Dark clouds, Rain Varsha Rainy āvani, puratāci Mid Aug - Mid Oct
kūlir Chill, Cold Sharada Autumn aippasi, kārthigai Mid Oct - Mid Dec
mun-pani Early dew Hemanta Early winter mārkazhi, tai Mid Dec - Mid Feb
pin-pani Late dew Sishira Late winter māsi, panguni Mid Feb - Mid Apr

साठ वर्षांचे चक्रसंपादन करा

The 60-year cycle of the Tamil calendar is common to North and South Indian traditional calendars, with the same name and sequence of years. Its earliest reference is to be found in Surya Siddhanta, which Varahamihirar (550 CE) believed to be the most accurate of the then current theories of astronomy. However, in the Surya Siddhantic list, the first year was Vijaya and not Prabhava as currently used. This 60-year cycle is also used in the Chinese calendar.

After the completion of sixty years, the calendar starts anew with the first year. This corresponds to the Hindu "century." The Vakya or Tirukannitha Panchangam (the traditional Tamil almanac) outlines this sequence.

The following list presents the current 60-year cycle of the Tamil calendar:

No. Name Name (English) Gregorian Year No. Name Name (English) Gregorian Year
01. பிரபவ Prabhava 1987 - 1988 31. ஹேவிளம்பி Hevilambi 2017 - 2018
02. விபவ Vibhava 1988 - 1989 32. விளம்பி Vilambi 2018 - 2019
03. சுக்ல Sukla 1989 - 1990 33. விகாரி Vikari 2019 - 2020
04. பிரமோதூத Pramodhoodha 1990 - 1991 34. சார்வரி Sarvari 2020 - 2021
05. பிரசோற்பத்தி Prachorpaththi 1991 - 1992 35. பிலவ Plava 2021 - 2022
06. ஆங்கீரச Aangirasa 1992 - 1993 36. சுபகிருது Subakrith 2022 - 2023
07. ஸ்ரீமுக Srimukha 1993 - 1994 37. சோபகிருது Sobakrith 2023 - 2024
08. பவ Bhava 1994 - 1995 38. குரோதி Krodhi 2024 - 2025
09. யுவ Yuva 1995 - 1996 39. விசுவாசுவ Visuvaasuva 2025 - 2026
10. தாது Thaadhu 1996 - 1997 40. பரபாவ Parabhaava 2026 - 2027
11. ஈஸ்வர Eesvara 1997 - 1998 41. பிலவங்க Plavanga 2027 - 2028
12. வெகுதானிய Vehudhanya 1998 - 1999 42. கீலக Keelaka 2028 - 2029
13. பிரமாதி Pramathi 1999 - 2000 43. சௌமிய Saumya 2029 - 2030
14. விக்கிரம Vikrama 2000 - 2001 44. சாதாரண Sadharana 2030 - 2031
15. விஷு Vishu 2001 - 2002 45. விரோதகிருது Virodhikrithu 2031 - 2032
16. சித்திரபானு Chitrabaanu 2002 - 2003 46. பரிதாபி Paridhaabi 2032 - 2033
17. சுபானு Subaanu 2003 - 2004 47. பிரமாதீச Pramaadhisa 2033 - 2034
18. தாரண Thaarana 2004 - 2005 48. ஆனந்த Aanandha 2034 - 2035
19. பார்த்திப Paarthiba 2005 - 2006 49. ராட்சச Rakshasa 2035 - 2036
20. விய Viya 2006 - 2007 50. நள Nala 2036 - 2037
21. சர்வசித்து Sarvajith 2007 - 2008 51. பிங்கள Pingala 2037 - 2038
22. சர்வதாரி Sarvadhari 2008 - 2009 52. காளயுக்தி Kalayukthi 2038 - 2039
23. விரோதி Virodhi 2009 - 2010 53. சித்தார்த்தி Siddharthi 2039 - 2040
24. விக்ருதி Vikruthi 2010 - 2011 54. ரௌத்திரி Raudhri 2040 - 2041
25. கர Kara 2011 - 2012 55. துன்மதி Thunmathi 2041 - 2042
26. நந்தன Nandhana 2012 - 2013 56. துந்துபி Dhundubhi 2042 - 2043
27. விஜய Vijaya 2013 - 2014 57. ருத்ரோத்காரி Rudhrodhgaari 2043 - 2044
28. ஜய Jaya 2014 - 2015 58. ரக்தாட்சி Raktakshi 2044 - 2045
29. மன்மத Manmatha 2015 - 2016 59. குரோதன Krodhana 2045 - 2046
30. துன்முகி Dhunmuki 2016 - 2017 60. அட்சய Akshaya 2046 - 2047

सोहळे-उत्सवसंपादन करा

The months of the Tamil Calendar have great significance and are deeply rooted in the faith of the Tamil Hindus. Some months are considered very auspicious while a few are considered inauspicious as well.

Some of the celebrations for each month are listed below. Dates in parentheses are not exact and usually vary by a day or two. Underneath (or beside) the months of the Hindu calendar are their Gregorian counterparts.

महिने दिवस नोंदी
சித்திரை - चैत्र / चित्तिरै(एप्रिल) April 14 - May 14 Chitra Pournami & Varusha pirappu are the most important festivals in this month
வைகாசி - वैशाख / वैकासि(मे) May 15 - June 14 Vaikaasi Visaakam is the most important day in this month.
ஆணி - ज्येष्ठ / आणि(जून) June 15 - July 14 Aani Thirumanjanam or Aani Uttaram for Lord Nataraja is the most famous day in this month.
ஆடி - आषाढ / आडि(जुलै) July 15 - August 14 A most important month for women. The most auspicious days are Fridays and Tuesdays in this month, these are called Aadi Velli and Aadi Chevvai and the Aadi Amavasya. Aadi Pooram is also a special day.
ஆவணி - श्रावण / आवणि(ऑगस्ट) August 15 - September 15 An important month with many rituals. Brahmins change their sacred thread on Aavani Avittam. Each Sunday of the month is dedicated to prayers - Aavani Gnayiru.
புரட்டாசி - भाद्रपद / पुरट्टसि(सप्टेंबर) September 15 - October 15 An important month for Vaishnavas. Purattaasi Sani(Saturday) is an auspicious day.
ஐப்பசி - अश्विन / ऐप्पसि(ऑक्टोबर) October 15 - November 14 The monsoons typically start over Tamil Nadu in this month. Hence the saying, "Aippasi Mazhai, adai mazhai" - meaning "Aippasi rains are persistent rains".

Also Annaabishekam for Lord Shiva is very famous in this month. The most famous Hindu festival "Deepavali" is celebrated in this month. The Fridays of this month - Aipassi velli - are dedicated to religious observance.

கார்த்திகை - कार्तिक / कार्तिकै(नोव्हेंबर) November 15 - December 14 Another auspicious celebration for Shiva devotees is Thirukaarthigai. The Krithikaa Pournami is the special day of the full moon in the month of Kaarthikai, and the star is Krithikaa.

Each Monday of this month is dedicated to the worship of Lord Murugan.Every Monday is called "Somavaaram" when 108 or 1008 sangabhishekam are offered to Lord Shiva and Lord Muruga.

மார்கழி - मार्गशीर्ष / मार्गळि(डिसेंबर) December 15 - January 14 This is another special month in the Tamil Calendar. Temples open earlier in the mornings and Devotees throng the temples early for puja and prasadam - the offering made to the deity which is later distributed to the devotees. Arudra Darisanam (Thiruvaadirai star in तमिळ) is the most auspicious day in this month. This is also a very popular festival in केरळ, where it is called Thiruvaadira. The offering made to Lord siva is the Thiruvaadira Kali. Mukkodi Ekathesi is called "Sorgavasal Thirappu" for Lord Vishnu. The Tiruvembaavai fast takes place in this month.
தை - पौष / तै(जानेवारी)
(उच्चार : ताय्/तई)
January 15 - February 14 Pongal, which is the harvest festival, is celebrated on the first day of this month. Thai Sukrawaaram is a popular day among Telugu speaking peoples settled in Tamil Nadu. Thaipusam is also a special day for Murugan devotees, who carry Kavadis to one of the Aarupadaiveedu (Literally meaning "six abodes").
மாசி - माघ / मासि(फेब्रुवारी) February 15 - March 14 Maasi Magam is the special day of the most famous Mahasivarathiri and Maasi Magam which comes in this Month.
பங்குனி - फाल्गुन / पन्गुनि(मार्च) March 15 - April 13 Panguni Uthiram, the last month of the year, is a famous festival and special to Murugan and Siva devotees. The State Government of Tamil Nadu declared it a holiday, during which offices and schools remain closed. However, shops remain open and do brisk business. The state's active film industry also releases a few new films, and cinemas usually overflow with eager fans waiting to watch the earliest show with their favourite stars on the big screen.

महत्त्व/महात्म्यसंपादन करा

  • The Hindus developed a system of calendrics that encapsulates vast periods of time. For computing the age of the earth and various geological and other epochs, as well as the age of mankind, they still employ a Tamil calendar derived from ancient astronomical data, known as the Tirukkanida Panchanga (cf. The Secret Doctrine, 2:49-51).
  • This calendar contains a calculation of something over three hundred million years for the age of the present earth since sedimentation occurred, and a period of somewhat more than eighteen million years since the first appearance of our mankind.
  • The 10th Tamil month, called Thai, falls in mid-January each year. It is celebrated with much enthusiasm within the Tamil Community all over the world. Thai is marked by gifts of new clothing for family members and prayers to God for prosperity in the coming year. Thai and the fifth month Aavani are considered very auspicious for marriage and most marriages occur during these months.
  • The fourth month Aadi is considered inauspicious, so weddings do not often fall in this month. Aadi is also the month of preparation for the next crop cycle by farmers. Therefore, farming communities avoid major events like weddings in this month. Those members of the Tamil community who don't actively contribute/participate in farming take advantage by having important functions like wedding in this month. For example, the business community prefers this month for weddings. Asdi is usually the worst month for business, although when businesses recently initiated Aadi discounts, this situation has changed significantly. Each Friday of this month is set aside for prayer and worship.
  • Aadi ia an inauspicious month for newlyweds to sleep together because a woman who conceives in this month will have a difficult delivery in May, the hottest month in Tamil Nadu (Agni natchathiram [pinezu] last 7 days of Chitharai and [munezu] first 7 days of Vaigasi).?)
  • Purattaasi is when most of the non-vegetarian Tamil people fast from meat for a month. This faith can be considered similar to fasts undertaken by Muslims during Ramadan. Each Saturday of this month is set apart to venerate the planet Saturn.
  • Deepavali, is celebrated on the new moon day, in the seventh month Aipassi. The month of Aipassi is usually characterised by the North-East Monsoon in Tamil Nadu, which has given birth to a phrase, Aipassi Adai Mazhai meaning the "Non-stop Downpour".
  • Maargazhi falls in winter in Tamil Nadu, and is considered auspicious for unmarried women to find a groom. The Shaivite fast of Tiru-vembaavai and the Vaishnava fast of Tiru-paavai are also observed in this month.
  • The total number of days in a Tamil Calendar is an average 365 days and the days of the week are named similarly to those of the western calendar. The Vakiya Panchangam is employed for both sacred and civil calculations. The Trikanitha Panchangam is employed for astrological calculations.

सणवारसंपादन करा

The Tamil Calendar is so important to the life of Tamil-speaking people that most of the Festivals of तमिळ नाडु are based on it. Some of Festivals include Tamil New Year or Puthandu in mid-April, Thai Pongal, Deepavali, Panguni Uthiram, Thirukaarthigai, Aadiperukku, Navaratri etc.

हेसुद्धा पाहासंपादन करा

संदर्भदूवेसंपादन करा

  1. ^ Professor Vaiyapuri Pillai, 'History of Tamil Language and Literature' Chennai, 1956